Russian track and field athletes will remain banned from the Olympics following claims the country ran a state-sponsored doping programme.
The Russian Olympic Committee (ROC) and 68 Russian athletes attempted to overturn the suspension, implemented by the body that governs world athletics.
But the Court of Arbitration for Sport (Cas) has ruled it can stand.
A handful of Russian athletes could still compete as neutrals at the Rio Games, which start on 5 August.
“It’s sad but rules are rules,” said Olympic 100m and 200m champion Usain Bolt, who is targeting more gold medals in Rio.
He said it was important to send a strong message to the dopers.
“Doping violations in track and field is getting really bad,” said the Jamaican, 29. “If you cheat or go or against the rules, this will scare a lot of people.”
However, Russian pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva – one of the 68 to appeal to Cas – said the ruling was “a blatant political order”, while the Russian Foreign Ministry called it a a “crime against sport”.
Isinbayeva, the 2012 gold medallist, 34, told the Tass news agency: “Thank you all for this funeral for athletics.”
The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) said it was “pleased Cas has supported its position”, adding that the judgement had “created a level playing field for athletes”.
IAAF president Lord Coe added: “This is not a day for triumphant statements. I didn’t come into this sport to stop athletes from competing.
“Beyond Rio, the IAAF taskforce will continue to work with Russia to establish a clean safe environment for its athletes so that its federation and team can return to international recognition and competition.”
Separately, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) is considering calls to ban all Russian competitors from the Rio Games following a second report into state-sponsored doping.